Glossary

Disclaimer: In case of any discrepancies or inconsistencies, please refer to the Oxford English Dictionary. http://www.oed.com/ – All definitions presented here were taken from the Oxford English Dictionary.

 

A

Adaptable adj.

1 able to adjust to new conditions. 2 able to be modified for a new use or purpose -DERIVATIVES: adaptability n. adaptably adv.

Agent n.

1 a person that provides a particular service, typically one organizing transaction between two other parties. > a person who manages financial or contractual matters for a performer, writer, or sportsperson. 2 a person who works in secret to obtain information for a government. 3 a person or thing that takes an active role or produces a specified effect. > grammar the doer of an action. 4 computing an independently operating Internet program, typically one that performs background tasks such as information retrieval or processing on behalf of a user or other program.

Area n.

1 a region or part of a town, country, etc. > a space allocated for a specific use: the dining area. > a part of an object or surface. 2 a subject or range of activity. 3 the extent or measurement of a surface. 4 a sunken enclosure giving access to a basement.

Artifact n. US spelling of artefact

1 an object made by a human being. 2 something observed in a scientific investigation that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the investigative procedure.

Attitude n.

1 a settled way of thinking or feeling. > a position of the body indicating a particular mental state. 2 informal truculent behaviour. > self-confident behaviour: she snapped her fingers with attitude. 3 the orientation of an aircraft or spacecraft.

Augmentation n.

1 the action or process of augmenting. > music the lengthening of the time values of notes in a melodic part.

 

 

C

Capability n.

1 power or ability to do something. > an undeveloped or unused faculty.

Catalyst n.

1 a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. > a person or thing that precipitates an event.

Chunk n.

1 a thick, solid piece. > a large amount.> v. N Amer, divide into chunks.

Co-creation

Co- prefix
1 (forming nouns) joint; mutual; common: co-author. 2 (forming adjectives) jointly; mutually: coequal 3 (forming verbs) together with another or others: co-produce. 4 mathematics of the complement of an angle: cosine. > the complement of co-latitude.

Creation n.

1 the action or process of creating. > a thing which has been made or invented, especially something showing artistic talent. 2 (the Creation) the creation of the universe, especially when regarded as an act of God. > the universe.

Connection n.

1 a link or relationship between people or things. 2 an opportunity for catching a connecting train, bus, etc. 3 (connections) people with whom one has contact. 4 informal, chiefly N. Amer. a supplier of narcotics. 5 chiefly historical an association of Methodist churches.

Context n.

1 the circumstances that form the setting of an event, statement, or idea. > the parts that immediately precede and follow a word or passage and clarify its meaning.

 

E

Emotion n.

1 a strong feeling, such as joy, anger, or sadness. > instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge.

Entity n.

1 a thing with distinct and independent existence

Environment n.

1 the surrounding or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates. > computing the overall structure within which a user, computer, or program operates. 2 (the environment) the natural world, especially as affected by human activity.

Ethics n.

1 the moral principles governing or influencing conduct. 2 the branch of knowledge concerned with moral principles.

Evidence n.

1 information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. > law information drawn from personal testimony, a document, or a material object, used to establish facts in a legal investigation or admissible as testimony in a law court. > signs; indications.

Exchange n.

1 an act or the action of exchanging. 2 a short conversation or argument. 3 the changing of money to its equivalent in another currency. > a system or market in which commercial transactions involving currency, shares, etc. can be carried out within or between countries. > a building or institution used for the trading of commodities. 4 a telephone exchange. 5 chess a move or sequence of moves in which both players capture material of comparable value.

Explicit adj.

1 stated clearly and precisely. 2 describing or representing sexual activity in a direct and detailed way.
-DERIVATIVES: explicitly adv. explicitness n.

 

F

Facilitate v.

1 make easy or easier.
-DERIVATIVES: facilitation n. facilitative adj. facilitator n. facilitatory adj.

Fallible adj.

1 Capable of making mistakes or being wrong -DERIVATIVES: fallibility n. fallibly adv.

Feedback n.

1 information given in response to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc., used as a basis for improvement. 2 the modification or control of a process or system by its results or effects. 3 the return of a fraction of the output of an amplifier, microphone, or other device to the input, causing distortion or a whistling sound.

 

G

Goods pl. n.

1 (goods) merchandise or possessions. > (often as modifier) brit. freight: a goods train. 2 (the goods) informal exactly what is required.

 

H

Hearing n.

1 the faculty of perceiving sounds. > the range within which sounds may be heard; earshot. 2 an opportunity to state one’s case. 3 law an act of listening to evidence, especially a trial before a judge without a jury.

 

I

Implicit adj.

1 implied though not directly expresses. 2 (implicit in) always to be found in. 3 with no qualification or question: an implicit faith in God. 4 mathematics (of a function) not expressed directly in terms of independent variables.
-DERIVATIVES: implicitly adv. implicitness n.

Information n.

1 facts or knowledge provided or learned. 2 what is conveyed or represented by a particular sequence of symbols, impulses, etc.: genetically transmitted information. > data as processed, stored, or transmitted by a computer. 3 law a charge lodged with a magistrate’s’ courts.

Interaction n.

1 reciprocal action or influence

Internalize v.

1 psychology make (attitudes or behaviour) part of one’s nature by learning or unconscious assimilation. > acquire knowledge of (the rules of a language). 2 economics incorporate (costs) as part of a pricing structure.
DERIVATIVES: internalization n.

Iterate v.

1 perform or utter repeatedly. 2 make repeated use of a mathematical or computational procedure, applying it each time to the result of the previous application.
-DERIVATIVES: iteration n.

 

K

Knowledge n.

1 information and skills acquired through experience or education. > the sum of what is known. > philosophy true, justified belief, as opposed to opinion. 2 awareness or familiarity gained by experience

 

L

Location n.

1 a particular place or position. > the action or process of locating. 2 an actual place in which a film or broadcast is made, as distinct from a simulation in a studio. 3 s. african former term for township.

 

M

Moment n.

1 very brief period of time. > an exact point in time. 2 formal importance; significance. 3 physics a turning effect produced by a force on an object, expresses as the product of the force and the distance from its line of action to a given point.

Money n.

1 a medium of exchange in the form of coins and banknotes. > (moneys or monies) formal sums of money. > wealth or financial gain. > payment for work.

Motivation n.

1 a reason or reasons for doing something. 2 a desire to do something, enthusiasm.

 

N

Needful adj.

1 formal necessary; requisite. 2 dated needy. -DERIVATIVES: needfully adv. needfulness n.

 

 

O

Offer v.
1 present (something) for (someone) to accept or reject. 2 express readiness to do something for or on behalf of someone. 3 provide (access or an opportunity). 4 (often offer something up) present (a prayer or sacrifice) to a deity. 5 (offer something up) position something to assess its appearance or fit. > n. 1 an expression of readiness to do or give something. 2 an amount of money that someone is willing to pay for something. 3 a specially reduced price. 4 a proposal of marriage. -DERIVATIVES: offerer n.

Operand n.

1 mathematics the quantity on which an operation is to be done.

Operant adj.

1 involving the modification of behaviour by the reinforcing or inhibiting effect of its own consequences. > n. an item of behaviour that is not a response to a prior stimulus but something which is initially spontaneous.

Organization n.

1 the action of organizing. > systematic arrangement of elements. > a systematic approach to tasks. 2 an organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as business of government department.

 

P

Participant n.

1 a person who takes part in something

Perception n.

1 the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the sense. > the state of being or process of becoming aware of something in such a way. 2 a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something. > intuitive understanding and insight. 3 Psychology & Zoology the neurophysiological processes, including memory, by which an organism becomes aware of and interprets external stimuli.

Phase n.

1 a distinct period or stage in a process of change or development. > each of the aspects of the moon or a planet, according to the amount of its illumination. 2 zoology a generic or seasonal variety of an animal’s coloration. 3 chemistry a distinct and homogeneous form of matter separated by its surface from other forms. 4 physics the relationship in time between the cycles of an oscillating or repeating system and a fixed reference point or a different system. > v. 1 carry out in gradual stages. > (phase something in/out) introduce something into (or withdraw something from) use in gradual stages. 2 apply phasing to (an electronic musical instrument). 3 physics adjust the phase of (something), especially so as to synchronize it with something else.

Process n.

1 a series of actions or steps towards achieving a particular end. > a natural series of changes. > a series of interdependent operations carried out by computer. 2 Law a summons to appear in court. 3 Biology & Anatomy a natural appendage or outgrowth on or in an organism. 4 [as modifier] Printing relating to or denoting printing using ink in three colours (cyan, magenta, and yellow) and black.

 

 

R

Relationship n.

1 the way in which two or more people or things are connected, or the state of being connected. > the way in which two or more people or groups regard and behave towards each other. 2 an emotional and sexual association between two people.

Research n.

1 the systematic investigation into and study of material and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. > v. carry out research into. > use research to discover or verify information presented in (a book, programme, etc.).

Resource n.

1 a stock or supply of materials or assets. > a teaching aid. 2 a strategy adopted in adverse circumstances. > (resources) personal attributes that sustain one in adverse circumstances.

Responsibility n.

1 the state or fact of being responsible. 2 the opportunity or ability to act independently and take decisions without authorization. > (often responsibilities) a thing which one is required to do as part of a job, role, or legal obligation.

Rhythm n.

1 a strong, regular repeated pattern of movement or sound. > the systematic arrangement of musical sounds, according to duration and periodical stress. > a type of pattern formed by this. > a person’s natural feeling for musical rhythm. 2 the measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose as determined by the length of and stress on syllables. 3 a regularly recurring sequence of events or actions: the rhythms of the tides.

 

 

S

Senses n.

1 a faculty by which the body perceives an external stimulus; one of the faculties of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. > (one’s senses) one’s sanity: she seems to have taken leave of her senses. 2 an awareness of something or feeling that something is the case. 3 a sane and realistic attitude to situations and problems. > a reasonable or comprehensible rationale. 4 a way in which an expression or situation can be interpreted; a meaning. 5 chiefly mathematics & physics the property distinguishing two opposite but otherwise identical things, e.g. motion in opposite directions. 6 [as modifier] genetics relating to or denoting a coding sequence of nucleotides, complementary to an antisense sequence. > v. 1 perceive by a sense or senses. > be vaguely or indefinably aware of. 2 (of a machine or similar device) detect.

Sight n.

1 the faculty or power of seeing. 2 the action or fact of seeing someone or something. > the area or distance within which someone can see or something can be seen. 3 a thing that one sees or that can be seen. > (sights) places of interest to tourists and other visitors. 4 (a sight) informal a person or thing having a ridiculous or unattractive appearance. 5 (also sights) a device on a gun or optical instrument used for assisting in precise aim or observation. > v. 1 manage to see or briefly observe. 2 take aim by looking through the sights of a gun. 3 take a detailed visual measurement with or as with a sight. > adjust the sight of (a gun or optical instrument).

Signal n.

1 a gesture, action, or sound conveying information or an instruction. 2 an indication of a state of affairs. 3 an event or statement that provides the impulse or occasion for something to happen. 4 a light or semaphore on a railway, giving indications to train drivers of whether or not to proceed. 5 Bridge a prearranged convention of bidding or play intended to convey information to one’s partner. 6 an electrical impulse or radio wave transmitted or received.

Skill n.

1 the ability to do something well; expertise or dexterity. > v. (usu. as noun skilling) train (a worker) to do a particular task.

Smell n.

1 the faculty of perceiving odours by means of the organs in the nose. 2 a quality in something that is perceived by this faculty; an odour. > an unpleasant odour. 3 an act of inhaling in order to ascertain an odour. > v. (past and past part. smelt or smelled) 1 perceive or detect the odour of > sniff at (something) in order to ascertain its odour. > (smell something out) detect or discover something by the faculty of smell. > detect or suspect by means of instinct or intuition. 2 emit an odour of a specified kind. > have a strong or unpleasant odour. > be suggestive of something.

Socialize v.

1 mix socially with others. 2 make (someone) behave in a way that is acceptable to society. 3 organize according to the principles of socialism.
-DERIVATIVES: socialization n. socialized adj.

Space n.

1 a continuous area or expanse which is free or unoccupied. > a gap between printed or written words or characters. > pages in a newspaper, or time between broadcast programmes, available for advertising. 2 the dimensions of height, depth, and width within which all things exist and move. > (also outer space) the physical universe beyond the earth’s atmosphere. > the near-vacuum extending between the planets and stars. 3 an interval of time (indicating that the time is short): both cars were stolen in the space of a few hours. 4 the freedom and scope to live and develop as one wishes. 5 mathematics a mathematical concept generally regarded as a set of points having some specified structure. 6 telecommunications one of two possible states of a signal in certain systems. The opposite of mark. > v. 1 position (items) at a distance from one another. 2 (be spaced out or chiefly N. Amer. space out) informal be or become euphoric or disoriented, especially from taking drugs.

Stage n.

1 a point, period, or step in a process or development. > a section of a journey or race. 2 a raised floor or platform on which actors, entertainers, or speakers perform. > (the stage) the acting or theatrical profession. 3 a scene of action or forum of debate. 4 a floor of a building. 5 each of two or more sections of a rocket or spacecraft that are jettisoned in turn when their propellant is exhausted. 6 electronics a part of a circuit containing a single amplifying transistor or valve. 7 a raised plate on a microscope on which a slide or specimen is placed for examination. 8 geology a range of strata corresponding to an age in time, confirming a subdivision of a series. 9 historical a stagecoach. > v. 1 present a performance of (a play or other show). > organize and participate in (a public event). > cause (something dramatic or unexpected) to happen. 2 medicine assign (a disease or patient) to a stage in a process.

Stakeholder n.

1 an independent party with whom money or counters wagered are deposited. 2 a person with an interest or concern in something.

Support v.

1 bear all or part of the weight of. 2 give assistance, encouragement, or approval to. > be actively interested in (a particular sports team). > (as adj supporting) (of an actor or a role) of secondary importance to the leading roles in a play or film. > (of a pop or rock group or performer) function as a secondary act to (another) at a concert. 3 provide with a home and the necessities of life. > be capable of sustaining. 4 corroborate. 5 endure; tolerate. > n. 1 a person or thing that supports. > the action of supporting or the state of being supported. > corroborative evidence. 2 assistance, encouragement, or approval.

-DERIVATIVES: supportability n. supportable adj.

Sustainable adj.

1 able to be sustained. > conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources.
-DERIVATIVES: sustainability n. sustainably adv.

Symbiosis n.

1 biology an interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, especially to the advantage of both.

System n.

1 a complex whole; a set of things working together as a mechanism or interconnecting network. > the human or animal body as a whole. 2 an organized scheme or method. > orderliness method. 3 (the system) the prevailing political or social order, especially when regarded as oppressive and intransigent. 4 geology a major range of strata corresponding to a period in time. 5 music a set of staves joined by a brace.

 

T

Tacit adv.

1 understood or implied without being stated. -DERIVATIVES: tacitly adv.

Taste n.

1 the sensation of flavour perceived in the mouth on contact with a substance. > the faculty of perceiving this. 2 a small portion of food or drink taken as a sample. 3 a brief experience of something. 4 a person’s liking for something. 5 the ability to discern what is of good quality or of a high aesthetic standard. > conformity to a specified degree with generally held views on what is appropriate or offensive: a joke in bad taste. > v. 1 perceive or experience the flavour of. > eat or drink a small portion of. 2 have experience of.

Thought (1) n.

1 an idea or opinion produced by thinking or occurring suddenly in the mind. > (one’s thoughts) one’s mind or attention. > an act of considering or remembering. 2 the action or process of thinking. > careful consideration or attention. 3 the formation of opinions, especially as a philosophy or system of ideas, or the opinions so formed.

Thought (2) n.
1 past and past participle of think.

Touch v.

1 come into or be in contact with. > come or bring into mutual contact. > bring one’s hand or another part of one’s body into contact with. > strike (a ball) lightly in a specified direction. 1 harm or interfere with. > [usu with neg.] consume or use (food, drink, money, etc.). 3 have an effect on. > [with neg.] have any dealings with: he took jobs that nobody else would touch. 4 produce feelings of affection, gratitude, or sympathy in. 5 informal reach (a specified level or amount). > [usu with neg.] approach in excellence. 6 (as adj touched) informal slightly mad. 7 (touch someone for) informal ask someone for (money) as a loan or gift. 8 (touch something in) chiefly art lightly mark in details with a brush or pencil. > n. 1 an act of touching. > a musician’s manner of playing keys or strings respond to being played. > a light stroke with a pen, pencil, etc. 2 the faculty of perception through physical contact, especially with the fingers. 3 a small amount. 4 a distinctive detail or feature. 5 a distinctive manner or method of dealing with something. > an ability to deal with successfully. 6 rugby & soccer the area beyond the sidelines, out of play. 7 bell-ringing a series of changes shorter than a peal. 8 archaic a test of worth.

Transparency n.

1 the condition of being transparent. 2 a positive transparent photograph printed on plastic or glass, and viewed using a slide projector.

Trigger n.

1 a device that releases a spring or catch and so sets off a mechanism, especially in order to fire a gun. 2 an event that causes something to happen. > v. 1 cause (a device) to function. 2 (also trigger something off) cause to happen or exist.

Trust n.

1 firm belief in someone or something. > acceptance of the truth of a statement without evidence or investigation. 2 the state of being responsible for someone or something: a man in a position of trust. 3 law an arrangement whereby a person (a trustee) holds property as its nominal owner for the good of one or more beneficiaries. > a body of trustees. > an organization managed by trustees. 4 chiefly N. Amer. a large company that has or attempts to gain monopolistic control of a market. 5 W. Indian or archaic commercial credit. 6 archaic a hope or expectation. > v. 1 believe in the reliability, truth, or ability of. > (trust someone with) have the confidence to allow someone to have, use, or look after. > (trust someone/thing to) commit someone or something to the safe keeping of. > (trust to) place reliance on (luck, fate, etc.). 2 hope or expect (used as a polite formula): I trust that you have enjoyed this book. 3 archaic allow credit to.

Truth n.

1 the quality or state of being true. > (also the truth) that which is true as opposed to false. > a fact or belief that is accepted as true.

 

U

User n.

1 a person who uses or operates something. 2 a person who exploits others. 3 law the continued use or enjoyment of a right.

 

V

Value n.

1 the regard that something is held to deserve; importance or worth. > material or monetary worth. > the worth of something compared to its price: at $12.50 the book is good value. 2 (values) principles or standards of behaviour. 3 the numerical amount denoted by an algebraic term; a magnitude, quantity, or number. 4 music the relative duration of the sound signified by a note. 5 linguistic the meaning of a word or other linguistic unit. > the sound represented by a letter or symbol. 6 the relative degree of lightness or darkness of a colour. > v. (values, valuing, valued) 1 estimate the value of. 2 consider to be important or beneficial.

Variation n.

1 a change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level. > (also magnetic variation) the angular difference between true north and magnetic north at a particular place. 2 a different or distinct form or version. > music a new but still recognizable version of a theme. > ballet a solo dance as part of a performance.

Visibility n.

1 the state of being visible. > the distance one can see as determined by light and weather conditions.